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CEREBRAL PALSY (Pediatrics)

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  1. nonprogressive central motor impairment syndrome due to prenatal/perinatal events (trauma, lesions, metabolic abnormalities anomalies of brain); a symptom complex, NOT a disease
  2. association with low birth weight babies
  3. incidence 1.5-2.5/1000 live births (developing countries)
  4. extent of mental retardation varies
  5. life expectancey is dependent on the degree of mobility and mental retardation, not on severity of CP


Types

 

  1. spastic i.e. increased tone  - diplegia: lower limbs > upper limbs often due to interventricular hemorrhage or periventricular leukomalacia; hemiplegia: one-sided paralysis; quadraplegia
  2. extrapyramidal – choreoathetoid (kernicterus), dystonic (fluctuating high/low tone)
  3. hypotonic
  4. ataxic
  5. mixed

Etiology

 

  1. often obscure or multiple
  2. no definite etiology identified  in 1/3 of cases
  3. 10% due to postnatal insult - infections, asphyxia and trauma

Other Signs

 

  1. swallowing incoordination – aspiration
  2. microcephaly (25%)
  3. seizures
  4. mental retardation, learning disabilities
  5. delay in motor milestones

 

Investigations


  1. include metabolics, chromosome studies, tissue exam, serology,neuroimaging, evoked potentials, EEG (if seizures), ophthalmology,audiology

Treatment

 

  1. maximize potential through multidisciplinary services; important for family to be connected with various support systems
  2. orthopedic management (e.g. dislocations, contractures, rhizotomy)

 

CEREBRAL PALSY (Pediatrics) CEREBRAL PALSY (Pediatrics) Reviewed by Radiology Madeeasy on October 03, 2010 Rating: 5
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