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  1. see also Cardiology Notes
  2. can be transient or permanent, congenital (structurally normal or abnormal) or acquired (toxin, infection)

Sinus Arrhythmia


  1. phasic variations with respiration
  2. heard in almost all normal children

Premature Atrial Contractions


  1. may be normal variant or can be caused by electrolyte disturbance,
    hyperthyroidism, cardiac surgery, digitalis toxicity


Premature Ventricular Contractions (PVCs)


  1. common in adolescents
  2. benign if single, uniform, disappear with exercise, no associated structural lesions
  3. if not benign, may degenerate into more severe dysrhythmias

Supraventricular Tachycardia (SVT)


  1. most frequent sustained dysarrhythmia in children
  2. not life threatening but can lead to symptoms
  3. caused by re-entry via accessory connection, AV node most common site
  4. characterized by a rate of greater than 210 bpm treatment:  vagal manouver, adenosine, digoxin (except in WPW)





  1. see also Cardiology Notes
  2. 10-15% of cases are culture negative
  3. Osler's nodes, Janeway's lesions, splinter hemorrhages are late findings in children
  4. antibiotic prophylaxis for prevention is necessary for all patients with:
    • congenital heart disease (except for isolated secundum ASD)
    • rheumatic valve lesions
    • prosthetic heart valves
    • surgical shunts
    • previous endocarditis
    • pacemaker leads
    Osler's nodes

    Osler's nodes

    Janeway's lesions

Janeway's lesions

DYSRHYTHMIAS and INFECTIVE ENDOCARDITIS DYSRHYTHMIAS and INFECTIVE ENDOCARDITIS Reviewed by Radiology Madeeasy on September 05, 2010 Rating: 5
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